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Genetic engineering is a very broad term. Genetic engineering does not occur naturally, humans must make it happen by manipulating an organism's genes. It can be used to define any number of genetically modified organisms, called GMO's. Genetic engineering has it's uses, and by using it properly, it could make great scientific improvements. For example, scientists have changed bacteria to create more environmentally friendly ion batteries.
How it's done
There are many ways to alter an organism. The simplest way can only be done with plants. It's called graft and when you have to kinds of trees you want to combine, you cut off an identical part from each one, and put the part you cut off on the other tree. Another way to do it is to insert a gene at a random host location. To do this, the scientists must isolate a gene, then it is inserted. Another way is electroporation. For this one to occur scientists shock the plant or animal to weaken the cell walls, then a gene is inserted. Not all genes are changed this way, but scientists put down a marker to determine which genes were and which genes were not altered.
Pros and cons
People have debated whether genetic engineering is truly all good. Some people speculate that it can cause allergies. Also, genetic engineering can eliminate biodiversity, as it creates an organisms specifically tailored to its environment, meaning it will eventually choke out other native species, making it the only one. In fact, 80% of all plants in North Dakota are genetically engineered, proof of natural plant life being destroyed. But all the good that comes from it, despite the cons, there is no reason to just stop it. People have engineered plants with a higher nutritional value. If it stops altogether, scientific advancement will slow down
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